Tuesday, July 2, 2019

Knowledge and blame


Human beings love to give explanations for things.  If you have ever spent any time with a five-year-old, you know that a child that age just loves to ask, “Why?”  This desire to understand why things happen continues throughout our lives.  Understanding why things happen affects many aspects of our lives, including our ability to assign blame for an action. 
The way we go about assigning blame often involves our ability to come up with counterfactual statements.  A counterfactual is a statement that starts, “If only…” where the “If” part of the statement talks about something that didn’t really happen. 
Suppose, for example, two children are playing catch with a football in the living room of a house.  One of them throws the ball too hard, and it hits an expensive vase.  We might blame the child who threw the ball by staying, “If only he hadn’t thrown the ball too hard, the vase would not have broken.”  Or, we might blame both children by saying, “If only they had played catch outside, the vase would not have broken.” 
There are many factors that people take into account when they create these kinds of counterfactuals when trying to figure out who to blame.  Quite a bit of research by Jonathan Baron and his colleagues, for example, demonstrates that we often focus on actions people take rather than inactions when assigning blame.  So, if a man pushes someone over and she gets hurt, we blame the man for hurting the woman.  We reason that if he had not pushed her, she would not have gotten hurt.  But, suppose the man watches a woman about to walk into a bench that she does not see.  He does not tell her about the bench, and she trips over it, falls, and gets hurt.  The man might have prevented the accident by speaking out, but we don’t think he is (as much) to blame.  In part, his inaction is not seen as much of a cause of the woman getting hurt, because even if he had spoken up, it is possible she still would have fallen.
An interesting paper by Elizabeth Gilbert, Elizabeth Tenney, Christopher Holland, and Barbara Spellman in the May, 2015 issue of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin explores another aspect of blame:  the knowledge of the individual performing the action. 
The idea behind these studies is that we often blame people more for actions when they have knowledge that they could have acted on.  So, if the children playing catch in the living room are 2-years-old, we might blame them less for the broken vase than if they are 10-years-old, because the 2-year-olds might know that throwing objects around the room can lead things to be broken, while the 10-year-olds know that and so they could have (and should have) acted differently.
In one study, participants read a scenario in which Sarah borrows a car from Josh.  It turns out that the car has brake problems.  Sarah drives a little recklessly and gets in an accident that hurts another person.  In this situation, people think Sarah and the brakes of the car are the cause of the accident.  However, if Josh knew that the brakes had a problem and did not tell Sarah, then people now think that Josh is actually more to blame for the accident than Sarah.  If he had told her, then she might have driven differently.  In a third condition, Josh knew that the brakes had a problem and did tell Sarah, but she drove recklessly anyhow.  Now, Sarah is once again seen as more blameworthy than Josh for the accident, because she had enough knowledge to act more responsibly.
Another study in this series looked at the counterfactuals people create.  The scenario in this study involved a woman who is cutting the grass at her house with a lawnmower that is defective.  The lawnmower spins out of control and cuts her prize tulips.  In one condition, the woman does not know the lawnmower is defective.  In the other, her mechanic has told her the mower is defective. 
Participants were asked to generate several “If only” statements and to rate whether this counterfactual statement could have occurred and whether the woman could have controlled whether that happened.   They also rated the woman’s blame for destroying the tulips.
Participants thought the woman was more to blame when she knew the lawnmower was defective than when she did not know.  The reason for this difference was that when the woman knew the lawnmower was defective, people were more likely to think that she could have done something (like buy a new lawnmower) that would have fixed the problem and spared the tulips.  So, there was a direct link between the counterfactuals people created and the blame they assigned the woman.
Ultimately, when we are trying to understand the causes of events in our world, we reason about the way the world could have been had people taken different actions.  When we think that people could have easily taken an action that would have led to a different outcome, we blame them for that outcome.  And, knowledge is one key factor that makes us believe that a person could have acted differently.

18 comments:

  1. According to the latest essay writer review, it is found that students are mostly choosing Best Dissertation Writing Services for their unmatched quality of service. There are lots of positive reviews that add to MyAssignmentHelp.com review.
    This assignment help service is the best in the market according to students’ review. It has been found that most of the students prefer their service because of the quality, price and other beneficial aspects. By analyzing some of the top reviews, let us know why this service has been considered as the best one for the help seekers.
    The only way to get a detailed insight of the site is to go through the reviews that are posted on the best essay writing service,
    Before selecting a homework help websites, students must read the reviews. Reading reviews is necessary as the students get to know which service providers are genuine and which is fake.
    To mislead the visitors, a lot of My assignment help Review are posted in review writing websites.
    For students who are going to write and looking for topics. Which side of the problem are you going to write about and what solution can you offer? You should know the objective of your essay, topic like- Hamlet’s Tragedy Persuasive Essay samples.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. ARE YOU A VICTIM OF FALSE HACKERS, BANK LOAN & BINARY AUCTION/OPTIONS SCAM⁉️

      We have been having recent complains from individuals about how they lost money 💵 to SPAMMERS who call themselves HACKERS or BANK LOAN OFFERS. They are all over the internet sharing false testimonies. Please do not fall for their lies for this is just a way to LURE you to them.

      They say lies in the likes of -:
      ▪️Bitcoin Auction/Options ▪️Western Union Hack
      ▪️Blank Credit Card ▪️Clearing Criminal Records
      ▪️Loan Offers. ▪️Bank Account Loading
      ▪️Changing University Grades & so on.
      These are all lies and you shouldn’t fall for them.

      🏵 PLUGGERS🏵 is here to help you Recover all your Money 💵 that you have been Ripped of.
      WHO ARE PLUGGERS⁉️
      We are a group of Computer💻 Experts who are memebers of the “HACKERONE” Forum. We have dedicated ourselves to help Victims of these SCAM(s) recover all the Money that has been taken falsely from them.

      If you have been a victim of these Thieves, then you need to contact us as soon as possible so you can get your money back.
      Email-: globalpluggers@gmail.com
      No. +1 (808) 600 0773 ( Number also available on WhatsApp)

      Note:
      Please know that we do not charge you for Fund Recovery Service, Our Funds Recovery Service is to help and so it’s Free.

      We also provide Legit Hacking Services such as-:
      🔸Phone Hacking/Cloning
      🔸Email Hacking & Password Recovery
      🔸Social Media Hacking & Passowrd Recovery
      🔸Deleted Files Recovery 🔸Mobil Tracking
      🔸Virus detection & Elimination.

      Contact-:
      Email globalpluggers@gmail.com
      No. +1 (808) 600 0773 (number also available on WhatsApp)

      Delete
  2. Hey, Your blog is very informative. It is nice to read such high-quality content. Attractive information on your blog, thank you for taking the time and share with us. Myassignmenthelp delivers high-quality content related to https://myassignmenthelp.com/uk/history-assignment-help.html.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I'm just a student as of right now, but psychology piques my interest and well I wanted to study it. Reading things like this really intrigues, and if so, then I might end up enjoying what I do on life. :)

    ReplyDelete
  4. Dearest Esteems,

    We are Offering best Global Financial Service rendered to the general public with maximum satisfaction,maximum risk free. Do not miss this opportunity. Join the most trusted financial institution and secure a legitimate financial empowerment to add meaning to your life/business.

    Contact Dr. James Eric Firm via
    Email: fastloanoffer34@gmail.com
    urgentloanoffer22.blogspot.com/
    Whatsapp +918929509036
    Best Regards,
    Dr. James Eric.
    Executive Investment
    Consultant./Mediator/Facilitator

    ReplyDelete
  5. The students are not prepared to give an anticipated proportion of time to their students and assignments. This assignment help uk gives 24 hours of availability to students. Through this, the students can at whatever point search for help from online organizations.
    law assignment helpAssignment Writing Service
    my assignment help

    ReplyDelete
  6. Are you enthusiastic to meet best class escorts in Bangalore? You can execute your erotic desires and ambition by choosing stylish models here in Bangalore.

    Since, you know Bangalore is a magnificent city where glamour lives in every avenue. From the modeling city to assorted movie studios, you can see here a bunch of greatest enjoyment creators. In the glamorous multitude of Bangalore, there are girls that are passionate to make their dreams true of becoming super model / actress.

    Bangalore Models escorts agency represents the beautiful aspiring models to you to have a elegant experience with them. Our upscale Bangalore models escorts who come from rich family or from other high profile societies offer their independent services. These girls are so hot and beautiful, have well shaped body structure, looks so stunning and admirable in communications, they give you always the comfortable experience.

    Visit here more information - Models Escorts in Bangalore

    ReplyDelete
  7. They are all scammers, they will make you pay after which they will give you an excuse asking you to pay more money, they have ripped me of $2000, i promised i was going to expose them.
    I figured it all out when my colleague took me to Pavel

    (HACKINTECHNOLOGY@GMAIL.COM)
    CELL PHONE +16692252253

    He did perfect job, he hacks all accounts ranging from (Emails, Facebook, whatsapp, imo, skype, instagram, Phone cloning, DMV removal, tracking locations, background checks Kik etc. he also hacks cell phones, cell phone tapping and cloning, clears bad driving and criminal records, bank transfers, locates missing individuals e.t.c. You should contact him and please stop using contacts you see on websites to execute jobs for you, you can ask around to find a real hacker.

    ReplyDelete

  8. PLEASE READ!!Hello evreryone!!! I am veronica gomez I live in Ohio USA I’m 52 Years old, am so happy I got my blank ATM card from RICHARD COSMOS. My blank ATM card can withdraw $4,000 daily.now my xmas will be bless.I got it from Him last week and now I have withdrawn about $10,000 for free. The blank ATM withdraws money from any ATM machines and there is no name on it because it is blank just your PIN will be on it, it is not traceable and now I have money for business, shopping and enough money for me and my family fpr the christmas and to live on.I am really glad and happy i met RICHARD COSMOS because I met Five persons before him and they could not help me. But am happy now RICHARD COSMOS sent the card through DHL and I got it in two days. Get your own card from him right now, he is giving it out for small fee to help people even if it is illegal but it helps a lot and no one ever gets caught or traced. I’m happy and grateful to RICHARD COSMOS because he changed my story all of a sudden. The card works in all countries that is the good news RICHARD COSMOS email address ultimatehackersworlds@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. We Bring To You Good News From Blank ATM master Cards And Bitcoin Investments..

    We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack any ATM machine, this ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, stores and outlets. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested buyers worldwide, the cards has a daily withdrawal limit of $5000 in ATM and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores. and also if you in need of any other cyber hacking services, we are here for you at any time any day.
    email:blankatmmastercard7@gmail.com
    you can also call or whatsapp us Contact us today for more enlightenment add me on  whatsapp
    +1(539) 888-2243 for more info.

    Email  blankatmmastercard7@gmail.com    
     Add me on whatsapp +15398882243 for more info.

    ReplyDelete
  10. You guys have surpassed my expectations! James is seriously amazing and is doing everything to help my Fiancé and me, in1weeks my credit score went up 700 points and I can only imagine what is to come. Thank you for the excellent customer service and doing exactly what you all have set out to do! NO GIMMICKS OR BS with you guys.They carry out any kind of hacks You can reachout to them via Hackintechnology@gmail.com +16692252253

    ReplyDelete
  11. Are you interested in any kinds of hacking services?
    Feel free to contact TECHNECHHACKS.

    For years now we’ve helped so many organizations and companies in hacking services.
    TECHNECHHACKS is a team of certified hackers that has their own specialty and they are five star rated hackers.

    We give out jobs to hackers (gurus only) to those willing to work, with or without a degree, to speed up the availability of time given to jobs!!

    Thus an online binary decoding exam will be set for those who needs employment under the teams establishment.


    we deal with the total functioning of sites like,



    + SOCIAL MEDIA (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, google hangout etc.)

    + CREDIT CARDS INSTALLATION

    + WESTERN UNION TRANSFER

    + MONEY FLIPPING

    + BANK ACCOUNTS

    + IOS/OS

    + CRIMINAL RECORDS

    + SCHOOL GRADES

    + CREDIT SCORES

    + SPOUSES PHONE

    + BTC RECOVERY

    + BTC MINING

    + BTC INVESTMENT

    Thus bewere of scammers because most persons are been scammed and they ended up getting all solutions to their cyber bullies and attacks by US.

    I am Jason williams one of the leading hack agent.

    PURPOSE IS TO GET YOUR JOBS DONE AT EXACTLY NEEDED TIME REQUESTED!!!



    And our WORK SUCCESS IS 100%!!!



    I’m always available for you when you need help.

    Contact or write us on:

    Technechhacks@gmail.com

    SIGNED....!

    Jason. W.

    ReplyDelete
  12. MyAssignmentHelp being one of the most active assignment help websites has a pool of over 4500+ assignment experts from Australia, UK and US.
    Our IPENZ writing experts in New Zealand understand the importance of time. They are specifically trained to stay true to the deadline. They deliver each sample ipenz writing help material within the stipulated time. It gives you the scope to proofread the paper before final submission.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Great, i must say and thanks for sharing this informative post.I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you’ve done your best, MyAssignmenthelp.co.uk is giving help to students who is stressed with their homework help and submit their assignment on time.we are already trusted by thousands of students who struggle to write their academic papers and also by those students who simply want Honda Europe Case Study Help to save their time and make life easy

    ReplyDelete